At a time when all the media are undergoing a metamorphosis linked to digital transformation, to national competition and the attractiveness of social networks, the management and media content production evolve and change the profession of journalism and publisher. Thus the students should be trained to an expertise in the media production and the management of the media, and more particularly of the new influential media that today carry a great deal of information.
Numerous economic, institutional, technical and cultural changes require constant vigilance
new professions and their news. They are destined for very diverse, dynamic and evolving functions non-stop. The explosive growth of digital and digital media has upset the impact they now have on public. Whether in the sector of pure media, in digital communication company, in the suppliers of content, or within a private or public communicating entity, people will know how to master the channels, and produce quality content, perfectly adapted to the reality of the market and new uses.
Sociology of the production of information
Media productions, especially written, are a familiar material for social scientists. To schematize, they are above all a means of information privileged on their theme of research or teaching. Different types of press (specialized, local, professional, etc.) can also sometimes be a means of socialization in surveys.
Beyond this secondary use, many researchers can be brought to work more directly on this material to analyze the “discourses”, the “representations” conveyed by the media, mainly through the publications of the main producers of information what are the journalists. Paradoxically, few of them have questioned, for example through scientific publications, about the uses the media for research purposes, while other methods (interviews, statistics by example) have been the subject of numerous articles and books aimed at expose the problems they posed.
So here we are trying to fill this gap by questioning the methodological problems related to the study of the media production, of its logics, in order to better understand the content. This review of some of the research experiments conducted on the media since the nineties is only one way of showing how, with others, we mobilize sociological tools for identify this object. This will also allow us to raise some common or specific problems that this type of investigation poses to researchers.
Music for movies – how it changes the impression
A great composer has told once, that when we go into a movie, the music knocks on the door, it has to prepare the viewer and go out without slamming the door, on tiptoe. In the early days of cinema (the first public screening of a film by the Lumière brothers dates from 1895) the films are silent. The music you hear is played “live” by a pianist or “salon” orchestra.
The music pieces are already existing, drawn from the classical or popular repertoire and arranged for the occasion. This music in movies has two main functions: to reassure the spectators immersed in the dark, and especially cover the sound of the projection apparatus, then placed in the room. Soon, we realized that music could accompany the image and support action (lawsuits, falls, the role of the “bad guy”, atmospheres …) and composers start writing original songs for movies. The film music found its place and became a genre in its own right in the thirties of the last century.
The role of music for movies
Music rarely plays the main role, but it is essential in the soundtrack of a film. It accompanies the strong moments of the action, it can evoke (and provoke) emotions, suggest ideas, sometimes give a different meaning to the image or story. Often the sound effects and dialogues are superimposed on the music.
According to the source, there are two types of it: the diegetic sound, that is a part of the action, it is understood by the characters of the film (radio, TV, musician visible to the image, …), and the extra-diegetic sound, which is not part of the story, it is heard only by the viewer.
Different processes used in music for movies
1. A theme that comes back, under different skins, often linked to a character (leitmotiv).
2. An instrument related to a character (music can replace dialogues)
3. The quote (from a popular theme, or from the classical repertoire …)
4. The inspiration of great composers
5. The expression of feelings, movement, creating an atmosphere, a decor.
6. Sound effects and sound effects
7. Moving from one scene to another (transition / rupture)
Relationship between sound and image
Three types of relationship between sound and image can be defined:
• Sound in: The sound source is visible on the screen. The sound is said to be synchronous;
• The out-of-field sound: the source of the sound is not visible in the image, but it can be imaginarily located in the space-time of the fiction shown. The sound is called diegetic. For example, we hear the race of a horse before seeing the animal appear on the screen, while we found in the middle of a meadow;
• The off sound: it comes from an invisible source, located in another space-time than the one that is represented on the screen. The sound is called hetero – or extradiegetic. For example, all music whose interpreters do not belong to the story. An off-camera sound can become in and out reciprocally, the same for the off sound.